If we want to clean up the production of plastics and chemicals, we need to consider both:
BASF is currently building the world's first electric Steam Cracker furnace in Ludwigshafen
Around 1,8 percent of BASF's Steam Cracker capacity in Ludwigshafen
BASF Furnace: 6 Megawatts
If scaled up to the capacity of BASF Ludwigshafen: 350 Megawatts
It is in the early stages, but it appears doable
Where does the CO₂ come from?
Can we make this more efficient, and are there alternatives?
Not all Power-to-X technologies are the same
Collaboration between Jiangsu Sailboat (China) and Carbon Recycling International (Iceland) at China's largest Methanol to Olefins facility
E-Naphtha and electric Steam Crackers
Green Methanol and Methanol-to-Olefins
Methanol-to-Olefins is more efficient and requires less energy
But beware of unintended consequences
Possible, but probably limited availability
Plastic recycling rate is 9% worldwide, but it differs widely
There will probably always be some non-recyclable waste
Can we run glass furnaces on electricity alone?
In 2008 the US company Cameron Glass built a large electric furnace for wine bottles
The furnace was unable to heat the glass evenly, it caused a major accident
Cameron Glass filed for bankruptcy in 2009
Can glass furnaces use mostly electricity and some gas?
Next-Gen furnace, Ardagh, Germany
Volta Project, AGC, Czechia
Fossil gas could eventually be replaced by green hydrogen
There is another problem
What is glass made of?
Silica (Silicium Oxide, SiO₂)
Limestone (Calcium Carbonate, CaCO₃)
Soda (Sodium Carbonate, Na₂CO₃)
CaCO₃ → CaO + CO₂
Na₂CO₃ → Na₂O + CO₂
The mineral inputs contain carbon and cause emissions
Recycling can reduce these
Carbon Capture and Storage?
Almost every industry needs to change its processes in major ways to avoid greenhouse gas emissions
Public domain or CC0 pictures used:
All other photos from my own collection. Illustrations created with Excalidraw.